When the couple decided to conceive a child, then this could affect the success of different circumstances. Problems that arise when trying to conception, represent the following terms. Fertility – ability to conceive. Lack of fertility – infertility. Another term – fecundity – the time it takes from the moment of cessation of contraception before the pregnancy. There are many different substances can affect the fertility and fecundity. Use of certain psychoactive substances may lower a woman's ability to conceive. Others make the conception, either temporarily or completely impossible.
For example, marijuana use reduces the reproductive function by altering the ovulatory function, especially if consumption of the drug occurred within the last year. Chronic marijuana use is completely blocked ovulation in women, although these changes are reversible. In Canada, conducted a study based on the materials of the survey of farm families to become pregnant for 30 years. It showed that the reduction in fertility was associated with smoking, as father and mother, with the consumption of large quantities of coffee and tea, mothers fathers. Alcohol consumption did not affect the timing of pregnancy on the date of termination of contraception.
Another major epidemiological study that covered ten European countries, also found no negative effects of moderate alcohol consumption as a female and on male fertility. Likely that the timing of pregnancy elongate in the case of alcohol consumption in women at high doses. Other studies also suggest an increased risk of infertility and spontaneous abortion in women who drink a lot. These poll Women have found the dependence of alcohol consumption and reproductive problems. For example, it was found that menstrual disorders, painful menstruation and premenstrual discomfort were more pronounced with a large level of alcohol consumption. With a large consumption of alcohol increases the likelihood of gynecologic surgeries, miscarriages, premature births and stillbirths. It was also shown that smokers have reduced fertility. The level of fertility in female smokers is about 72% of the level of smoking, and they have a 3.4 times greater likelihood that the occurrence of pregnancy need more than one year, ceteris paribus. Studies suggest reduced ovulatory response in smokers, as well as the fact that they may be difficult to implant the zygote. Smoking can cause infertility women and for three years brings menopause. Doctors found that contained in tobacco smoke polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) activates the death of eggs. These substances are associated with receptor – a special molecule on the surface of the egg and trigger gene, which are programmed cell death. This process is known as apoptosis. It was found that smoking among young women is equated to the removal of one ovary. Smokers who received the program IVF-ET (artificial fertilization and embryo transfer) and GIFT (gamete transfer), had a worse outcome compared with nonsmokers. The study authors conclude that the chances of success are much more nonsmoking women. Among smokers doctors observe the high prevalence of secondary amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) and irregular menstrual cycle. There is evidence that regular coffee utreblenie amount of 1-2 cups a day reduces a woman's ability to conceive and increase the time before the pregnancy. The study, which polled 104 healthy women trying to conceive for three months found that when used in an amount of coffee one cup per day, the probability of conception in each menstrual cycle was twice lower than in the case when the coffee was not used.